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DERC Engine Research
Current Projects

Project #1: Investigation of Advanced Fueling and High Efficiency Strategies in HSDI Diesel Engines

 

Motivation:

Cost-effective low-pressure fueling hardware, Understanding heat transfer losses which play an important role in improved efficiency, Understanding cycle- to-cycle combustion sensitivity and instability which limit market acceptance

Objectives:

  • Investigate the feasibility of a low-pressure direct-injection system (such as market-type multi-hole GDI hardware) for use with the LTC combustion strategies
  • Investigate and quantify the sources of cycle-to-cycle combustion sensitivity and instability to improve the engine industry’s ability to design and manufacture high efficiency engines
  • Use engine experiments with well-controlled boundary and initial conditions to assess the sources of instability related to stochastic variations in operating parameters (e.g., trapped charge temperature), fuel properties, and cyclic coupling
  • Couple the experimental effort with a computational effort to further isolate the parameters influencing cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder fluctuations
  • Identify operating strategies to maintain the benefits of advanced combustion (i.e., high thermal efficiency and low NOx and soot emissions) while minimizing cycle-to-cycle variability
  • Compare cyclic instability of conventional and advanced combustion modes over a range of conditions

RCCI Cycle to Cycle Variation

Change in operating conditions required to reproduce experimentally observed variation in IMEP (top), CA50 (middle), and peak pressure rise rate (bottom). The predictions were made by a response surface model trained using CFD modeling with small perturbations to the intake and fueling conditions. The inputs highlighted with the red box shows the dominant factors controlling variability of each predicted output (i.e., these parameters require the smallest change to reproduce the experimentally observed variations).

Project #2: Investigation of Transient Operation using Alternative Fueling and High Efficiency Strategies

 

Motivation:

Understanding combustion during transient conditions in a test cell and a vehicle, Benefits of improved hardware (combustion chamber design, thermal heat rejection, air system configurations), Benefits of alternative fuels

Objectives:

  • Identify and characterize specific differences in engine inlet/boundary conditions and combustion behavior between transient and steady state operating conditions
  • Investigate transient LTC combustion for different fuels and fueling strategies
  • Investigate transient operation of revised pistons, cooling, and air systems to improve fuel economy and load range
  • Develop installation and fuel injection calibrations for UW Hybrid Vehicle and test vehicle on chassis dynamometer
  • Optimize Hybrid Vehicle diesel, RCCI, and electric modes for maximum fuel economy and minimum exhaust emissions

New LTC Piston DesignHybrid Car with LTC Engine

Project #3: Simulations of Transient Operation using Alternative Fueling and High Efficiency Strategies

 

Motivation:

Combustion modeling during transient conditions needed to develop and model control and aftertreatment strategies for prediction of exhaust emissions pre- and post-catalyst and achieving acceptable response of engine components, Guide for future transient multi-cylinder engine experiments

Objectives:

  • Develop a system-level transient simulation tool (using a GT-Power engine model linked with a detailed Chemistry combustion code) to study transient operation of high efficiency combustion in a multi-cylinder engine
  • Compare the accuracy and fidelity of the zero-dimensional advanced combustion models coarse KIVA simulation to detailed KIVA simulations and multi-cylinder engine experiments. Investigation and further calibration of GT Power model using the mechanism of Chemkin aftertreatment model since the Chemkin results were closer to the experiments for all the steady state cases
  • Develop a system-level transient simulation tool (using a GT-Power catalyst model) of a integrated Direct Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) to optimize the aftertreatment process for advance combustion strategies
  • Investigate the effect of High Pressure; Low Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) techniques such as Late Intake Valve Closing (IVC), boosting strategies such as supercharging, two-stage turbocharging and turbo-discharging and Blowdown Supercharging (BDSC) on advanced combustion processes using KIVA, and on the engine system using GT-Power
  • Investigation and further calibration of GT Power model using the mechanism of Chemkin aftertreatment model since the Chemkin results were closer to the experiments for all the steady state cases
  • Modeling the GT Power DOC model for transient cases of varying loads and flow rates and ultimately integrating it with the engine model

Blowdown Suppercharger

Blowdown Supercharging Methodology. Source: Kuboyama et al, IJER 2012

Turbocharger Concept

Turbo-discharging Concept. Source: Williams et al., SAE Paper 2011-01-0371

Project #4: Natural Gas and Derivative Fuels for High Efficiency and Low Emissions

 

Motivation:

Market expansion of Natural Gas and its derivatives as a low cost fuel source used with production dual fuel applications. Investigation of Dual-Fuel RCCI which has high thermal efficiency, reduced emissions, and good transient control

Objectives:

  • Evaluate feasibility of employing alternative and low-carbon fuels for use in advanced fuel reactivity controlled combustion
  • Computationally evaluate pathways to achieve high-efficiency combustion while meeting emissions and pressures rise rate constraints
  • Compare the emissions and performance of RCCI operation using conventional and alternative fuels by applying fuel-specific kinetic submodels
  • Single- and multi-cylinder Natural Gas RCCI engine experiments using results from detailed CFD modeling

Natural Gas Operating Map

Project #5: Comparison of Particulate Emissions from Multiple Combustion Modes

 

Motivation:

Particulate emissions data from a wide range of conventional and advanced combustion strategies in a common engine platform can be used to improve combustion particulate and aftertreatment models

Objectives:

  • Compare number-based particulate emissions from a wide range of conventional and advanced combustion strategies (Conventional diesel (CDC), RCCI, HCCI, Gasoline CI, Diesel LTC) in a common engine platform with various engine-operating conditions (speed/load, phasing, etc.)
  • Investigate particle size distribution (PSD) data and understand the differences in particle- formation processes among various combustion strategies
  • Evaluate the influence of sampling system on the measured particle size distributions (i.e., dilution ratio, dilution tunnel temperature profile, volatile particle remover, etc.)
  • Investigate particle morphology under different operating strategies and conditions by conducting transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies.

Particulates for Different LTC CombustionCombustion Mode Comparisons

 
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